On Society versus Authority, Where Do Our Genuine Liberty Arise From?

“…Freedom of Nature is, to be under no other restraint but the Law of Nature…”

John Locke /  Philosopher and Theorist

still : John Locke, a world-renowned and influential philosopher from the age of enlightenment & father of classical liberalism

still : John Locke, a world-renowned, influential philosopher from the age of enlightenment & father of classical liberalism

What is our most essential and imperative core for survival? Is it merely a physical need? If we feed them, then we’ll always live through? As a human being, we have often overlooked that critical thinking or simply being skeptical and dare ourselves to question everything, is our most substansial feature. We are all born with beautiful mind and yet we have shamelessly ignored their presence and blantantly smash their function,  in the interest of dominant and massive influence of power system. Now, if we evaluate again our history on fostering freedom and democracy : have we gone down the right road? or have we deviated from the course?

Under “freedom” and “democracy” that the powerfull elites have firmly established throughout centuries  ( and yet we have silently condoned) , is what has contributed nothing to strengthen humanity and it’s values. On the contrary, it brings forth more horrific vices to destroy it.  From extreme nationalism and fearful obedience to blind patriotism and irrational belief. Those are only a handful of most malicious and wicked attributes, being enforced by the elites in power, to dominate our interest and to restrain our independent thinking. So, where do we must to start if we want to search and achieve a true and genuine freedom that is based on democratic virtues? The only answer is : within ourselves

We must to trace our steps back into the state of nature and therefore we can begin to envision the most ideal way of life, which is based on the natural law. And the grandest nature of all that governs and so does determine our pathway in life is  reason.  Reason isn’t just a fragment of institution but, it’s the most vital part of human competence that plays a major role to shape our fate and shield our ideas. In the absence of it, it allows a powerful force to infiltrate, take over and displace our reason with faith-based doctrine that deliver more venom than cure.

As what John Locke theorized : the only law that we must to abide is the natural law cause, that is where a genuine freedom going to emerge.  We must to remember that a good society should be built on great design and foundation to protect every individual’s rights and defend every individual’s interest. The nation and government must to serve us, not the people who should surrender their freedom and become submissive toward authority. Submitting yourself to arbitrary rules is a major infringement toward law of nature. It parallels humanity to calamity. It’s a doomsday for human survival.

Written by DHANA


Violence, Invasion, War, Terrorism… And Let There Be Democracy and Civilization

still : Howard Zinn, Historian and Social Activist

Howard Zinn. Social Activist and Historian

“….If those in charge of our society — politicians, corporate executives, and owners of press and television — can dominate our ideas, they will be secure in their power…”

~ Howard Zinn / Historian and Social Activist ~

In the age of modern warfare and terrorism, our morality and humanity have been harshly and brutally crushed to shreds. The merger of capital and power have been magnified and capitalized by state, corporate business, military and media to attain their political ends and to retain the status quo. Absolute control over natural resources, destruction for the production of human labors, exerting massive power and economic hegemony are the most colossal masterplan that underlies behind every wars.

The history of violence in this civilization has repeated itself over and over again. From the middle ages to 20th century, this world has been filled with a series of bloodshed that destruct armless and innocent people. It’s all being done in the name of good cause and for the sake of interest for ruling class. Now the problem is not how we should perceive it but how can we redeem it. Do we dare to question authority and the rulers? Are we brave to challenge the all-powerfull and the almighty?

Throughout decades, people have been persistently deceived by state power – under grand illusions glorified and enhanced by mass media – that all wars are aimed to preserve the virtous cause : defeat the evil power, defend the good forces and save the mankind. But, is that the actual motive that laying behind the policies of lauching war and invading another countries? A bunch of “intellectual” rationalisation keeps manipulating the minds of free-open societies and externalizing it’s sinister and gruesome plan through blind patriotism of flag-waving.

As what Howard Zinn had remarked : “…If those people in power can dominate people’s ideas, they won’t need to establish police state because we will control ourselves…” Any monstrous failure with it’s horrific consequences can be surpressed under pretext of salvaging and spreading good cause – even when the establishment were wrong, noone would confront them- And if noone have a right to formulate their own ideas, it will jeopardize mankind and cilivized world.

But, we may still have some hopes and prospect to protect the continuation of our good lives : our moral institution and conscience. That’s it. The world’s history isn’t just about cruelty and savagery but also compassion, sacrifice, courage and kindness. No other place where we can find them but within ourselves.

Written by DHANA

The quest for the universal morality : manifested dogmas or natural impulse?

“…It is better to be a human dissatisfied than a pig satisfied; better to be Socrates dissatisfied than a fool satisfied….”

John Stuart Mill / British Philosopher and Political Economist

still : John Stuart Mill, A influential Philosopher and Political Economist from 19th century who advocates "utilitarianism"

still : John Stuart Mill, a highly influential Philosopher and Political Economist from 19th century

Throughout centuries, philosophers and intellectuals have always been in the quest of seeking for the most rightful and valid conception of morality that is universally reasonable. The true core of morality that has a capability to render humanization against the arbitrary, savage and despotic state apparatus and absolute authority. After the industrial revolution and the abolition of monarchy that sweeps through europe, and followed by a colossal annihilation of million civilians and resources during world wars, it brought out the awareness of natural rights which are safeguarded and preserved under a virtual imposition of international laws. But, does it have a competence to turn human intution to become more ethical and moral?

Moral principles are legitimized per se by nature. Human generally have it’s own faculty to judge what is wrong or right. We certainly don’t need UN or International Tribunal to perceive war as an extreme violence, the ugliest thing that have ever attacked humanity. No need any label to render human morality to function and play it’s role in society. Without the existence of foundation and recognition is what therefore enables it’s charitable force and natural altruism, even it can effectively root out the most sinister traits, including those which originates out of power system, ranges from pseudo-democracy to genocidal and racist doctrines.

So, what is the ground to achieve the ultimate and greatest happiness by nature? how to set off the moral principle of right or wrong to function? According to Jeremy Bentham : the most fundamental keys are to maximise pleasure and reduce pain, as both are the most authoritative law of nature and ruling governance of individuals. So by all means, the final end for moral values lies ultimately in our pursuit for pleasures.

But how about if the happiness was conditioned to become universal values? can we reconcile ego with common interest? John Stuart Mill carried on by creating a philosophy of a moral-based pleasure that is situationed to not just satisfy one individual but also others. As he had expressed in his remark : for cultivating humanity and morality, it would be preferable for a strike against a clever man rather than cater one idiot. Because the goal of utility principle is not designed to gratify a thousand swines whom people despise for their lack of intelligence and incapability to struggle, but to aim intelligent beings who are critical, skeptical and able to bravely challenge the despotic ruler to flourish.

Written by DHANA

What is the genesis of a true justice and democracy in post-modernist world?

“….The principles of justice are chosen under rationality and impartiality (a veil of ignorance)…”

~ John Rawls /  Political Philosopher ~

still : John Rawls, Philosopher and Key Founder of "Rawlsian Social Theory of Justice" who developed the modern usage of social contract

still : John Rawls, Philosopher and Key Founder of “Rawlsian Social Theory of Justice” which developed / defined the modern context of social contract

In post-world war 2, we all begun to search out the right “formula” for the system of justice which is universally applicable and can be imposed without any certain group of people being suppressed and marginalized. The failure of many political and economic system – especially those system that operates under the cloak of democracy and freedom – has led it’s population into the pits of moral degradation and cannibalistic greediness. In the past, jean-jacques rousseau, david hume and john locke had set off the first hint of long-standing theory to form a genuine justice that is based on liberal virtues and social values.

Now after the most violent and tumultuous period in history of mankind, John Rawls ushered in his political philosophy, widely known as “rawlsian theory”, that advocates liberalism and principles based on human nature and natural law. In his most basic tenets, “rawlsian theory” enunciates an established system of justice which is constructed on the most intrinsic right of individuals and sustained by population’s consensus. And how do we achieve the state of well-being in that method? All people must be veiled. They all must ignore a set of  knowledges and informations or social status to render impartiality and generate rationality so therefore they all can create their own ideals that doesn’t just benefit an exclusive group of rich elites but also the less-fortunate and the weaks as well as evokes equilibrium.

The next question is : how about the role of government and authority in this model of societal structure? The minimal intervention may come in handy to decimate the expansion of unregulated private powers that frequently concentrate their profits to wield in their influence and corrupt the system. But again, is there virtually any authority that driven by goodwill to govern it’s citizens and population? probably not. so the only resolution is : re-construction and re-establishment of a new democratic government that is completely relied on human faculties which embarked from original position where the veil of ignorance was the starting point.

Written by DHANA

Post-Colonial Slavery : Is Cultural Hegemony Keeping The Weak and Poor in Bondage?

“….The challenge of modernity is to live without illusions and without becoming disillusioned….”

 ~ Antonio Gramsci / Marxist Philosopher and Political Theorist~

still : Antonio Gramsci, One of the most influential marxist thinker and opponent of "cultural hegemony"

still : Antonio Gramsci, One of the most influential marxist thinker and writer

How do we perceive industrialisation in the world? What have a revolution in industry cast on world’s society? Modernisation is one of the most prominent effect – probably the biggest – that any system can have contributed upon it’s people. In post-colonial world, many civilisation have been essentially modernised, which ranges from the advancement of information technology, urbanisation and the most important core : the spread of education. BUT, is that all? is that what basically a modernisation having done to a society? Gramsci, a very influential and brilliant philosopher, theorized a tenet- famously called “cultural hegemony” – which strongly censures and criticizes the political body of dominance, monopoly and subordination of a bourgeois class over proletariat in social structure or under present circumstance, in which one major country have an oblique but massive influence in cultural, social, economic and political sphere on a less-developing and more weak countries. The history of hegemonic power goes way back to the era of ancient greece but the existence are still present today. The industrial revolution has even reinforced the imperial power to wield their mighty domination in the poor countries to keep them in the bondage and subjection through financial debt, under pretext to advance free trade globalisation. The chain of dependency – especially those countries where the population have suffered in enormous economic crisis or famine – is unscrewed and remains one of the biggest challenge any poor country have to face up with. As in issue antonio gramsci tried to grasp : modernity should not become an “invitation” for a powerful hegemony to cloak it’s agenda and perpetuate their influence in their inferior colony. If it never cease to exist, then it would be a blatant indication for a catastrophic setback of human rights and another privilige that should not be deprived by anyone.

Written by DHANA

Is Social Consciousness the Key to A Genuine Concept of Democracy?

“….Until industrial feudalism is replaced by industrial democracy, politics will be the shadow cast on society by big business….”

~ John Dewey / Philosopher and Psychologist ~

still : John Dewey, American Philosopher, Psychologist and Educational Reformer

still : John Dewey, American Philosopher, Psychologist and Educational Reformer

In this famous remark, John Dewey – a highly respected and revered philosopher in 20th century – enunciated a bleak, horrific condition and reality that exists in a free and open society. In many free worlds, such as United States, democracy and it’s value necessarily are very imperative and essential to fulfill the needs of their citizens and preserve their freedom. But the question now : is that what actually happens behind the closed door? Industrial Revolution, at the time when it emerged, was regarded as a milestone in many levels. It transformed the living for great masses of people and scaled up the machine tools and manufacturer into the most amazing advancement in history of world economy and politics. But unfortunately, in progression, industrialisation became a major cause and problem in societal structure, since it begun to be developed into a political tool for ruling class to dominate and control over means of production and manual labour. In the 20th century, all the enormous industry that is simply built on / for business interest is assimilated with the oligarchy system and consequently re-established a novel form of massive segregation where the rich and powerful elites trample on working class. So, what have left for us now? Our ideas. In his classic book “democracy and education”, he proposed a new movement to awaken social consciousness as a means of paving the way for freedom and democracy. Where do we start? Education. Or reformed education, NOT the college-based school that ostensibly intends to distribute knowledge and educate young people, but instead, is run for profit-making machine and  authority’s tool to suppress (of so-called) the “misdeed” of young people. As what John Dewey as well mentioned earlier : “every great advance in science has issued from a new audacity of imagination”. So, don’t ever submit to social conformity and obedience which essentially based on manufactured consent that benefits nobody but the powerful and rich. Because, obedience and conformity are a pitfall for our nature as a free man and a violation for our right as an individual.

Written by DHANA

Why Do We Need to Struggle More for Our Freedom?

“…the modern workers’ struggle is a part of history and a part of social progress. In the middle of it, we learn how we must fight…”

~ Rosa Luxemburg / Marxist Philosopher & Revolutionary Socialist ~

still : Rosa Luxemburg, Polish-German Marxist Theorist

still : Rosa Luxemburg, Polish-German Marxist Theorist and Prominent Leader of Left-Communism

In post-cold world, does the whole world become a far better place to live in? Does the world become more just and equitable? Would peace and justice automatically swoop in? Interestingly, that in fact is what most people always think or at least, assume. One major global power, which formerly was acknowledged as a repressive and totalitarian system, has been torn down. So, presumably the world would conform to more ‘favourable’ ideology that wins out the war, since what’ve appeared on the surface is an ideology that counter oppression and shelter free-thinking. BUT,unfortunately as soon as the hidden agenda emerged, the new face of evil would re-appear. As what Rosa Luxemburg elucidated nearly hundred years ago in her account of anti-imperialism : accumulation of capital is a major source and early stage to attain power and establish a regime as well as to wield in a mighty and autocratic control over population.In the modern era, as globalisation sweeps through the entire world, it inevitably enables the political objective for imposing undemocratic rules upon freedom to arise and it would become even more strongly unconstrained. So therefore, Luxemburg summed up a manifesto to struggle : we must resurrect the deepest consciousness of all workers, labours and the whole population to re-mobilize the movement and set off a new revolution.  The concept might be outdated, but the zeal for struggle is certainly not. Now we must take revolution to a whole new level and sets out a virtual war against the modern face of injustice and tyrannical mayhem. The spirit of struggle should be sparked again..because, it is a part of our history …we all always must to strive and fight.. for the sake of our own destiny.

Written by DHANA